Natto MK-7™ (Vitamin K2) References

  1. Misra D, et al. Vitamin k deficiency is associated with incident knee osteoarthritis. American Journal of Medicine, 2013 Mar;126(3):243-8 doi:10.1016/j.amjmed.2012.10.011
  2. Fusaro M, et al. Vitamin K, vertebral fractures, vascular calcifications, and mortality: Vitamin K Italian (VIKI) dialysis study. Journal of Bone Miner Res. 2012 Nov; 27(11):2271-8. doi: 10.1002/jbmr.1677
  3. Steven M. Plaza, ND, LAc, and Davis W. Lamson, MS, ND. Vitamin K2 in Bone Metabolism and Osteoporosis. Altern Med Rev 2005;10(1):24-35
  4. Iwamoto,, Ichiro, and Et. Al. “A Longitudinal Study of the Effect of Vitamin K2 on Bone Mineral Density in Postmenopausal Women a Comparative Study with Vitamin D3 and Estrogen–progestin Therapy.” The Official Journal of the European Menopause and Andropause Society, 30 Jan. 2009.
  5. Schurgers LJ, Teunissen KJ, Hamulyak K, Knapen MH, Vik H, Vermeer C., Vitamin K-containing dietary supplements: comparison of synthetic vitamin K1 and natto-derived menaquinone-7., Blood. 2007 Apr 15;109(8):3279-83.
  6. Steven M. Plaza, ND, LAc, and Davis W. Lamson, MS, ND. Vitamin K2 in Bone Metabolism and Osteoporosis. Altern Med Rev 2005;10(1):24-35
  7. Mann KG (1999). “Biochemistry and physiology of blood coagulation”. Thromb. Haemost. 82 (2): 165–74.
  8. Price PA (1988). “Role of vitamin-K-dependent proteins in bone metabolism”. Annu. Rev. Nutr. 8: 565–83. doi:10.1146/annurev.nu.08.070188.003025.
  9. Hafizi S, Dahlbäck B (2006). “Gas6 and protein S. Vitamin K-dependent ligands for the Axl receptor tyrosine kinase subfamily”. FEBS J. 273 (23): 5231–44.doi:10.1111/j.1742-4658.2006.05529.x.
  10. Gast, G., N. Roos, I. Sluijs, M. Bots, J. Beulens, J. Geleijnse, J. Witteman, D. Grobbee, P. Peeters, and Y. Van Der Schouw. “A High Menaquinone Intake Reduces the Incidence of Coronary Heart Disease.” A High Menaquinone Intake Reduces the Incidence of Coronary Heart Disease. Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases, 30 Jan. 2009.
  11. Xing G, Gutala R, Jaiswal A. Quinone Oxidoreductases and Vitamin K Metabolism. Vitamins & Hromones Vol 78, 2008, Pages 85-101.
  12. University of Maryland Medical Center . Vitamin K Overview 2005 http://www.umm.edu/altmed/articles/vitamin-k-000343.htm
  13. Dam, H. (1935). “The Antihæmorrhagic Vitamin of the Chick.: Occurrence And Chemical Nature”. Nature 135(3417): 652–653. doi:10.1038/135652b0.
  14. Ichikawa T, Horie-Inoue K, Ikeda K,, Blumberg B, and Inoue S. “Steroid and Xenobiotic Receptor SXR Mediates Vitamin K2-activated Transcription of Extracellular Matrix-related Genes and Collagen Accumulation in Osteoblastic Cells.”Steroid and Xenobiotic Receptor SXR Mediates Vitamin K2-activated Transcription of Extracellular Matrix-related Genes and Collagen Accumulation in Osteoblastic Cells. J Biol Chem, 2006 Jun 23;281(25):16927-34. Epub 2006 Apr 10.
  15. Vitamin K2. 2/18/2013 http://www.vitamink2.org/?znfAction=references
  16. Booth SL, Suttie JW. Dietary Intake and Adequacy of K vitamins. Journal of Nutrition. 1998;128(5):785-8.
  17. Kaneki M, Hodges SJ, Hosoi T, Fujiwara S, Lyons A, Crean SJ, Ishida N, Nakagawa M, Takechi M, Sano Y, Mizuno Y, Hoshino S, Miyao M, Inoue S, Horiki K, Shiraki M, Ouchi Y, Orimo H. Japanese fermented soybean food as the major determinant of the large geographic difference in circulating levels of K vitamins2: possible implications for hip-fracture risk. Nutrition. 2001;17(4):315-21.
  18. Olson RE. Vitamin K. In: Shils M, Olson JA, Shike M, Ross AC, eds. Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease. 9th ed. Baltimore: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 1999:363-380.
  19. Furie B, Bouchard BA, Furie BC. Vitamin K-dependent biosynthesis of gamma-carboxyglutamic acid. Blood. 1999;93(6):1798-1808.
  20. Shearer MJ. The roles of vitamins D and K in bone health and osteoporosis prevention. Proc Nutr Soc. 1997;56(3):915-937.
  21. Schurgers LJ, Spronk HM, Soute BA, et al. Regression of warfarin-induced medial elastocalcinosis by high intake of K vitamins in rats. Blood. Nov 30 2006.
  22. Westenfeld, R., L. Schurgers, and Et Al. “Effect of Vitamin K2 Supplementation on Functional Vitamin K Deficiency in Hemodialysis Patients: A Randomized Trial.” American Journal of Kidney Disease, 12 Dec. 2011.
  23. Beulens, Joline W.J., Michiel L. Bots, Femke Atsma, Marie-Louise E.L. Bartelink, Matthias Prokop, Johanna M. Geleijnse, Jacqueline C.M. Witteman, Diederick E. Grobbee, and Yvonne T. Van Der Schouw. “High Dietary Menaquinone Intake Is Associated with Reduced Coronary Calcification.” Atherosclerosis 203.2 (2009): 489-93.
  24. Geleijnse JM, Witteman JC, and Et Al. “Dietary Intake of Menaquinone Is Associated with a Reduced Risk of Coronary Heart Disease: The Rotterdam Study.” The Journal of Nutrition (n.d.): n. pag.
  25. Vermeer C, Theuwissen E. “Vitamin K, Osteoporosis and Degenerative Diseases of Ageing.” Menopause Int. 2011 Mar;17(1):19-23. (n.d.)
  26. Center for Disease Control. Osteoporosis. http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/fastats/osteoporosis.htm
  27. Knapen MHJ, Schurgers LJ, and Vermeer C, Vitamin K2 supplementation improves hip bone geometry and bone strength indices in postmenopausal women. Osteoporos Int, 2007, 18:953-972
  28. Fusaro, M., G. Crepaldi, S. Maggi, F. Galli, A. D’Angelo, L. Calò, S. Giannini, D. Miozzo, and M. Gallieni. “Journal of Endocrinological Investigation.” Journal of Endocrinological Investigation. N.p., 2011. Web. 30 July 2012.
  29. Ketteler, Markus, Hansjörg Rothe, Thilo Krüger, Patrick Biggar, and Georg Schlieper. “Mechanisms and Treatment of Extraosseous Calcification in Chronic Kidney Disease.” Nature, Sept. 2011.
  30. Sato, Jun Iwamoto, Azusa Seki, Yoshihiro, and Hideo Matsumoto. “Vitamin K2 Improves Renal Function and Increases Femoral Bone Strength in Rats with Renal Insufficiency.” SpringerLink. Springer Science+Business Media, n.d. Web. 30 July 2012.
  31. Yoshiji, Hitoshi, Ryuichi Noguchi, Masahito Uemura, and Hiroshi Fukui. “Combination of Vitamin K2 and Angiotensin-converting Enzyme Inhibitor Ameliorates Cumulative Recurrence of Hepatocellular Carcinoma.” Journal of Hepatology, 15 May 2009.
  32. Yoshiji, Hitoshi, Ryuichi Noguchi, Masaharu Yamazaki, Yasuhide Ikenaka, Akira Mitoro, Masahisa Toyohara, Motoyuki Yoshida, and Hiroshi Fukui. “Combined Treatment of Vitamin K2 and Angiotensin-converting Enzyme Inhibitor Ameliorates Hepatic Dysplastic Nodule in a Patient with Liver Cirrhosis.” World J Gastroenterol, 21 June 2007. Web. 30 July 2012.
  33. Nimptsch, K., and Et Al. “The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition.” Dietary Vitamin K Intake in Relation to Cancer Incidence and Mortality: Results from the Heidelberg Cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-Heidelberg). The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, n.d. Web.
  34. Vos, Melissa, and Patrik Verstreken. “Vitamin K2 Is a Mitochondrial Electron Carrier That Rescues Pink1 Deficiency.” Vitamin K2 Is a Mitochondrial Electron Carrier That Rescues Pink1 Deficiency. N.p., 10 May 2012. Web. 30 July 2012. 
  35. Hosking, Richard. A Dictionary of Japanese Food – Ingredients and Culture. 1995. Tuttle. p 106. ISBN 0-8048-2042-2
  36. Elder SJ, Haytowitz DB, Howe J, Peterson JW, Booth SL. Vitamin K contents of meat, dairy, and fast food in the U.S. Diet. Journal of Agricultural Food Chem. 54 (2): 463-7 doi:10.1021/jf052400h
  37. Ikeda Y, Iki M, Morita A, Kajita E, Kagamimori S, Kagawa Y, Yoneshima H. Intake of fermented soybeans, natto is associated with reduced bone loss in postmenopausal women: Japanese Population-Based Osteoporosis (JPOS) Study. Journal of Nutrition. 2006 May;136(5): 1323-8
  38. Tsukamoto Y, et al. Intake of fermented soybean (natto) increases circulating vitamin K2 (menaquinone-7) and gamma-carboxylated osteocalcin cocentration in normal individuals. Journal Bone Mineral Metabolism. 2000;18(4):216-22.
  39. “Rhéaume-Bleue, Kate. “Vitamin K2 and the Calcium Paradox” John Wiley & Sons Canada, Ltd., 2012, p. 66-67
  40. Elder SJ, Haytowitz DB, Howe J, Peterson JW, Booth SL (January 2006). “Vitamin k contents of meat, dairy, and fast food in the U.S. Diet”. J. Agric. Food Chem. 54 (2): 463–7. doi:10.1021/jf052400h. PMID 16417305.
  41. Hosking, Richard (1995). A Dictionary of Japanese Food – Ingredients and Culture. Tuttle. p. 106. ISBN 0-8048-2042-2.
  42. Buerk, Roland (11 March 2010). “Japan opens 98th national airport in Ibaraki”. BBC News. Retrieved 25 December 2012. “… natto, a fermented soy bean dish that many consider an acquired taste.”
  43. Katz, Sandor Ellix (2012). The Art of Fermentation: An In-Depth Exploration of Essential Concepts and Processes from Around the World. Chelsea Green Publishing. pp. 328–329. ISBN 978-1603582865. “Natto is a Japanese soy ferment that produces a slimy, mucilagenous coating on the beans, something like okra. […] The flavor of natto carries notes of ammonia (like some cheeses or overripe tempeh), which gets stronger as it ferments longer.”

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